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Classifying Cognitive Normal and Early Mild Cognitive Impairment of Alzheimer’s Disease by Applying Restricted Boltzmann Machine to fMRI Data

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 2 ]


Shengbing Pei and Jihong Guan*   Pages 252 - 260 ( 9 )


Background: Neuroimaging is an important tool in early detection of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which is a serious neurodegenerative brain disease among the elderly subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) is arguably one of the most widely used algorithm for the analysis of brain imaging data, which can be used to extract intrinsic networks of brain from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Methods: Witnessed by recent studies, a more flexible model known as restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) can also be used to extract spatial maps and time courses of intrinsic networks from resting state fMRI, moreover, RBM shows superior temporal features than ICA. Here, we seek to employ RBM to improve the performance of classifying individuals. Experiments are performed on healthy controls and subjects at the early stage of AD, i.e., cognitive normal (CN) and early mild cognitive impairment participants (EMCI), and two types of data, i.e., structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and fMRI data.

Results: (1) By separately employing ICA for sMRI and fMRI, the features extracted from fMRI improve classification accuracy by 7.5% for CN and EMCI; (2) instead of applying ICA to fMRI, using RBM further improves classification accuracy by 7.75% for CN and EMCI; (3) the lesions at the early stage of AD are more likely to occur in the regions around slices 4, 6, 10, 14, 19, 51 and 59 of the whole brain in the longitudinal direction.

Conclusion: By using fMRI instead of sMRI and RBM instead of ICA, we can classify CN and EMCI more efficiently.


Alzheimer's disease, magnetic resonance imaging, independent component analysis, restricted boltzmann machine, classification, neuronal.


Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai

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